The term “xenogenization” refers to the use of pathogenic antigen, increasing the likelihood that a cancer cell will be recognized as non-self or foreign by the host immune system. The introduction of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) onto cancer cells through viral infection has been called “artificial” xenogenization.
A new exosome-based approach for increasing the immunogenicity of tumors via xenogenization of tumor cells, triggering a robust anti-tumor immune response. Exosomes, which are membrane vesicles that shuttle genetic information and proteins between both neighboring and distant cells, are positioned to become a widespread tool for drug delivery. Exosomes can deliver membrane proteins into the right plasma membranes, which is an unresolved issue that scientists have wrestled with for more than a decade. To date, synthetic nanomaterials, including lipid vesicles, have been the mainstay delivery tool for protein drugs, but they cannot transfer the natural form of membrane proteins to the correct sites. Thus, exosomes are the only nanomaterials capable of transferring membrane proteins including transmembrane domain to the target cell membrane in their natural form, with maximized functionality.